At the Raikes Foundation, we believe that all young people should have access to rich, supportive and challenging educational experiences that affirm who they are and prepare them to thrive as adults in family, community and career.
While we’ve made progress as a country in raising high school graduation rates, race and class remain the most reliable predictors of students’ educational outcomes at a time when our school system and our nation are becoming more diverse. In fact, the post-secondary completion gaps by race and income have increased over the last several decades.
Why? The education system we have today is a relic of another era. It was designed to provide the quality educational experience every young person needs to only a privileged few, sorting and tracking young people on the basis of their sex, their race and their family’s income. And while that system is no longer overt, its legacy remains. So how do we create an education system that serves all young people well? Results over the past two decades show us that we can’t address educational disparities simply by increasing rigor and focusing on teacher quality. Standards are important but they don’t address how and why children learn and the environments that help them thrive.
The science of learning and development is showing us the way. Many of the lessons this research teaches us reinforces what we learn when we listen to the voices of underserved students and their families and the educators who work with them. It is time to reimagine an education system that is responsive to the needs and experiences of all young people, particularly students of color and those from low-income backgrounds. Investing in an equitable education system is one of the most important contributions we can make to help create a more just and economically viable society.
The science of learning and development reveals that while what students learn is important, the environment adults create to support them is essential to their success as adults. When schools affirm students' identities, surround them with supportive relationships, help them explore what they value, encourage them to recognize their strengths and skills, and make the connection between what students do in school and their lives and a purpose beyond themselves, all students can learn and achieve. When students are valued and respected as individuals and are not reduced to a stereotype, they persist in school, learn deeply and become lifelong learners.
The right school environment can help enable the learning mindsets and skills that allow all students to be successful. Students have learning mindsets when they know that intelligence grows with mental effort, understand that struggling with new challenges is a normal part of the learning process, can relate lessons to their own lives, and believe that they belong and can succeed in the classroom. Learning mindsets work hand in hand with educational skills such as time management, goal setting, and knowing when to ask for help. Together, learning mindsets and skills give students the beliefs, tools and habits they need to learn more of the content they are taught, seek out new challenges and persist through them.
Invest in the Science of Learning and Development. We fund research on how young people learn, develop and thrive and work to translate it into the classroom. Our investment in the Mindset Scholars Network is building the evidence and insights about how students’ psychological experience of school matters to their learning and life outcomes. In addition to funding basic science, we also work with researchers to design and test strategies and measures that teachers and schools can use to create classrooms that will foster engaging, growth-oriented, meaningful and equitable learning environments.
Redesigning Schools and Systems. We believe deep and meaningful change in our education system will only happen at the intersection of the perspectives of learning scientists, educators, young people and their communities. We support powerful networks that engage and integrate diverse perspectives to redesign schools and systems that work for all young people. The Raikes Foundation created the Building Equitable Learning Environments (BELE) Network to bring together a diverse group of organizations that are already working with schools to use the science of learning and development to improve outcomes for students of color and low-income students. We also support the College Transition Collaborative and Project for Education Research that Scales to help post-secondary institutions implement interventions and make institutional changes that will enable students to persist and complete college.
Create the Conditions. To ensure our public education system promotes opportunity for all we need education policies and educator preparation that foster equitable learning environments. We invest to support communities, educators and policymakers as they create policies that leverage the science of learning and development to advance equity. We also support field building efforts to advance the science of learning and development and its application in education.
It is mid-morning on a warm, spring Wednesday, and Erick Delcham is darting from student to student in his Algebra III class at North Queens Community High School.
Delcham smiles and laughs as he pushes his students to explain how they are trying to answer the problems in front of them.
“Notice what you are doing now?” he encourages a quiet boy named Kuron, who has floated an idea about how to solve a Pythagorean equation. “You are conjecturing!”
Delcham has been teaching math in New York City for 25 years. Until recently, he – like many people – thought that in every class, there are a certain number of students who are simply not “math people” and will never master the subject.
Erick’s views began to change when he and other math teachers at North Queens became part of the Student Agency Improvement Community (SAIC) and learned teaching methods that significantly increased his students’ engagement and proficiency.
The Raikes Foundation provided a grant to the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching in 2014 to establish the SAIC. The goal of the grant is to bridge the gap between cutting-edge research about the science of learning and the day-to-day realities of classrooms, so that many more students succeed.
The SAIC pairs Carnegie researchers and coaches with educators in a diverse mix of schools around the country. They work closely throughout the year to develop, test and refine techniques to help teachers – and their students – implement what researchers have discovered about the optimal ways to help students learn – the development of learning mindsets and skills – things like knowing that their intelligence grows with mental effort; that struggling with a new challenge is normal; when they can relate lessons to their own lives; and when they are shown that people like them belong in school and can be successful.
Students with learning mindsets have confidence in their ability to learn and persist when they face challenges. They see the value in the material they study and strive for growth.
Learning mindsets work hand in hand with educational skills such as time management, goal setting, and knowing when to ask for help. Together, learning mindsets and skills give students the beliefs, tools and habits they need to learn more of the content they are taught, seek out new challenges and persist through them.
Today more than 30 schools from six networks participate in SAIC, which Carnegie describes as a “Networked Improvement Community.” Carnegie applies the principles of improvement science to help SAIC participants rapidly prototype and iterate on solutions to major problems of student underperformance and to reduce inequities in educational outcomes.
North Queens is an especially useful laboratory for testing how to develop learning mindsets and skills to reduce inequities, given the challenges facing its student population. North Queens is one of 50 transfer schools in New York City, which are a “last stop” of sorts for young people the city’s traditional public schools have struggled to serve. Students enrolled in transfer schools are a year or more behind in high school and have a history of truancy. The student body is 35 percent African-American and 35 percent Hispanic, and many are from low-income backgrounds.
“We had a subset of kids that were coming to school on a regular basis but were not making progress in their classes, and we wanted to unpack what was going on,” said Lainey Collins, director of North Queens High School, explaining why she and Winston McCarthy, the principal of North Queens, decided to join SAIC. “We knew it wasn’t an attendance issue and we didn’t really feel like it was an academic skills issue.”
Collins first became interested in learning mindsets and skills after reading about Carol Dweck’s work on growth mindset – the belief that a person’s intelligence is not a fixed trait, but is malleable and can increase – and exploring academic and personal behaviors identified by the New York City Department of Education as integral to success, such as persistence and organizational skills.
When Collins and McCarthy joined SAIC, they had a very specific problem they wanted to solve: Low passage rates among North Queens students on New York City’s Regents Exam in Integrated Algebra, which is a graduation requirement.
Prior to joining SAIC, Collins said, only 30 to 40 percent of North Queens students were passing the exam. After introducing interventions to help teachers develop their students’ learning mindsets and skills, the pass rate rose to 66 percent the first year.
“We were super excited but we thought, ‘Well, maybe this is a one-time thing,” said Collins. The next time the test was administered the pass rate was 72 percent, and then it ticked up to 82 percent.
In addition to higher test scores, Collins said, students at the school started approaching math differently. They revised their work more and talked with their teachers more about the feedback they received. They also saw more relevance in their work, thanks to their teachers’ efforts to craft problems that resonate with the students’ daily lives.
Parabijit Kaur, an advocate counselor who works alongside the teachers at North Queens, said making math feel relevant for students is always a tough challenge.
“A student might say, ‘Why do I need to know AX squared plus BX equals C?’ How is that going to help me in the real world?” said Kaur.
So teachers at North Queens started using everyday examples. In one class, students were asked to solve a problem concerning monthly service charges for satellite television service. In another, the teacher crafted math questions related to the financial models of the music industry.
Identifying and testing such subtle changes are core elements of improvement science, and Kaur said they have been key to the academic improvements at North Queens. “Targeting a specific problem and changing what we do about it – that’s how we see progress, little by little,” said Kaur.
Jacob Leon, a 17-year-old student at North Queens, has reaped the benefits. Before coming to the school, Leon said that when he ran into trouble with challenging math problems he “just gave up.” Now, Leon said, his teachers “make the lessons all really interesting.” They also encourage him to keep trying new approaches when he gets stuck.
“It makes you want to answer the questions more and try to figure it out,” Leon said. He is also much more engaged when he is in class. “My mind is completely on my work and nothing else.”
Back in Erick Delcham’s Algebra III classroom, Delcham brings up the very real world issue of the year-end tests that are fast approaching.
“Do you remember what your goal was, to pass the Regents’ exam?” he asks.
“Word,” says Kuron.
“Do you feel ready?” Delcham asks.
“Yeah, thanks to you,” Kuron says with a grin. “I like the way you teach.”
The University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research offers a developmental framework that synthesizes decades of research evidence, practice wisdom, and theory to capture a holistic view of children’s developmental needs from early childhood to young adulthood. This includes consideration of the role agency and mindsets play in healthy youth development.Read More
There has been perennial interest in personal qualities other than cognitive ability that determine success, including self control, grit, growthIn th mind-set, and many others. Attempts to measure such qualities for the purposes of educational policy and practice, however, are more recent. In this article, mindset scholars David Yeager and Angela Duckworth identify and discuss challenges to this measurement.Read More
Conducted by Harvard University's Ron Ferguson and his colleagues, this analysis of more than 300,000 Tripod surveys across 16,000 sixth and ninth grade classrooms offers an unparalleled look at how teachers can develop agency in their students.Read More
Camille Farrington of the University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research explores the role of noncognitive skills in students’ school performance and educational attainment. The report was created in partnership with the Lumina Foundation and the Raikes Foundation.Read More
The application of learning mindsets to increase the participation of low-income students and students of color in rigorous high school Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) programs.
Support for the development and management of the Student Agency Improvement Community (SAIC), a networked community that currently includes four nodes: NYC Public Schools, Seattle Community College, Summit Charter Schools, and Harrisonburg City Schools in Virginia.
Support for the development and management of the Mindset Scholars Network, an interdisciplinary network of scholars and experts conducting groundbreaking research on mindsets and their effect on learning outcomes.
Support for the Project for Education that Scales (PERTS) Mindset Challenge, a partnership between researchers and online learning providers to rapidly prototype mindset interventions that promote better learner outcomes.
Support for a demonstration project to bring the Mindset Works curriculum, Brainology, and its Educator Toolkit to District of Columbia middle schools.
Support for Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research’s Becoming Effective Learners (BEL) survey measures, a research project to develop high-quality measures of non-cognitive factors.